PPAR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)

Curator(s): Joe Strothman

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) showing different expression patterns in vertebrates. Each of them is encoded in a separate gene and binds fatty acids and eicosanoids. PPARalpha plays a role in the clearance of circulating or cellular lipids via the regulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle. PPARbeta/delta is involved in lipid oxidation and cell proliferation. PPARgamma promotes adipocyte differentiation to enhance blood glucose uptake.    
Zoom out 50% Move left to zoom out, right to zoom in Zoom in 50% 100%

PPAR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human) cluster_node30 Liver Skeletal muscle cluster_Lipogenesis Lipogenesis cluster_node31 !dna cluster_Adipocyte Adipocyte cluster_node32 Skeletal muscle adipocyte cluster_node33 Lipid transport cluster_Ketogenesis Ketogenesis cluster_node34 Cholesterol metabolism cluster_node35 Fatty acid transport cluster_node36 Fatty acid oxidation cluster_node37 Adipocyte diff. FATCD36 FABP FATCD36->FABP FATP FATP->FABP node5 2 FABP->node5 node10 3 FABP->node10 Unsaturated fatty acid 2 FABP->Unsaturated fatty acid 2 node2 9-cis -Retinoic acid node4 PPARA RXR node2->node4 node6 PPARD RXR node2->node6 node9 PPARG RXR node2->node9 node3 1 node3->node4 Adipocytokine signaling pathway node4->Adipocytokine signaling pathway DNA 1 node4->DNA 1 Eicosanoid 1 node5->Eicosanoid 1 Fibrate drug node5->Fibrate drug NSAID node5->NSAID Saturated fat node5->Saturated fat Unsaturated fatty acid 1 node5->Unsaturated fatty acid 1 DNA 2 node6->DNA 2 DNA 3 node9->DNA 3 Eicosanoid 2 node10->Eicosanoid 2 NSAID 2 node10->NSAID 2 Thiazolidine derivative node10->Thiazolidine derivative Unsaturated fatty acid 3 node10->Unsaturated fatty acid 3 node11 4 node11->node9 Lipid metabolism node12 5 apolipoprotein A-I APOA1 node12->APOA1 apolipoprotein A-II APOA2 node12->APOA2 apolipoprotein A-V APOA5 node12->APOA5 apolipoprotein C-III APOC3 node12->APOC3 phospholipid transfer protein PLTP node12->PLTP node13 6 node13->Lipid metabolism node15 7 fatty acid desaturase 2 FADS2 node15->FADS2 malic enzyme 1,NADP(+)-dependent,cytosolic ME1 node15->ME1 node14 SCD-1 node15->node14 node16 8 node16->Lipid metabolism node17 9 CYP27 node17->CYP27 cytochrome P450,family 7,subfamily A,polypeptide 1 CYP7A1 node17->CYP7A1 cytochrome P450,family 8,subfamily B,polypeptide 1 CYP8B1 node17->CYP8B1 LXRalpha node17->LXRalpha node18 10 node18->Lipid metabolism node20 11 ACBP node20->ACBP ACS node20->ACS CD36 molecule (thrombospondin receptor) CD36 node20->CD36 fatty acid binding protein 1,liver FABP1 node20->FABP1 fatty acid binding protein 3,muscle and heart (mammary-derived growth inhibitor) FABP3 node20->FABP3 node19 FATP1/4 node20->node19 lipoprotein lipase LPL node20->LPL oxidized low density lipoprotein (lectin-like) receptor 1 OLR1 node20->OLR1 node21 12 node21->Lipid metabolism node23 13 ACO node23->ACO Bien node23->Bien CPT1 node23->CPT1 carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 CPT2 node23->CPT2 CYP4A1 node23->CYP4A1 LCAD node23->LCAD MCAD node23->MCAD node22 SCP-X node23->node22 Thiolase B node23->Thiolase B node24 14 node24->Lipid metabolism Cell Survival node25 Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis node26 15 ADIPO node26->ADIPO CAP node26->CAP matrix metallopeptidase 1 (interstitial collagenase) MMP1 node26->MMP1 PGAR node26->PGAR Perilipin node26->Perilipin aP2 node26->aP2 Adipocyte differentiation uncoupling protein 1 (mitochondrial,proton carrier) UCP1 Adaptive thermogenesis UCP1->Adaptive thermogenesis node27 16 integrin-linked kinase ILK node27->ILK pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase,isozyme 1 PDK1 node27->PDK1 ILK->Cell Survival PDK1->Cell Survival ubiquitin C UBC node28 Ubiquitination / Ubiquitylation UBC->node28 node29 17 PEPCK node29->PEPCK GyK node29->GyK aquaporin 7 AQP7 node29->AQP7 PEPCK->node25 GyK->node25 AQP7->node25 ACBP->node21 ACS->node21 CD36->node21 FABP1->node21 FABP3->node21 node19->node21 LPL->node21 OLR1->node21 ACO->node24 Bien->node24 CPT1->node24 CPT2->node24 CYP4A1->node24 LCAD->node24 MCAD->node24 node22->node24 Thiolase B->node24 node8 13(S)-HODE node8->node11 ADIPO->Adipocyte differentiation CAP->Adipocyte differentiation MMP1->Adipocyte differentiation PGAR->Adipocyte differentiation Perilipin->Adipocyte differentiation aP2->Adipocyte differentiation node1 8(S)-HETE Eicosanoid 1->node1 Leukotriene B4 Eicosanoid 1->Leukotriene B4 Fibrate drug->node3 NSAID->node3 Saturated fat->node3 Unsaturated fatty acid 1->node3 Eicosanoid 2->node8 node7 9(S)-HODE Eicosanoid 2->node7 NSAID 2->node11 Thiazolidine derivative->node11 Unsaturated fatty acid 3->node11 APOA1->node13 APOA2->node13 APOA5->node13 APOC3->node13 PLTP->node13 FADS2->node16 ME1->node16 node14->node16 node1->node3 CYP27->node18 CYP7A1->node18 CYP8B1->node18 LXRalpha->node18 node7->node11 DNA 1->node12 DNA 1->node15 DNA 1->node17 DNA 1->node20 DNA 1->node23 DNA 1->node26 DNA 1->UCP1 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (mitochondrial) HMGCS2 DNA 1->HMGCS2 HMGCS2->Lipid metabolism DNA 2->node20 DNA 2->node23 DNA 2->node26 DNA 2->UCP1 DNA 2->node27 DNA 2->UBC DNA 3->node15 DNA 3->node17 DNA 3->node20 DNA 3->node23 DNA 3->node26 DNA 3->UCP1 DNA 3->node29 Leukotriene B4->node3 Unsaturated fatty acid 2->node6 print "