PPAR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)

Curator(s): Joe Strothman

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) showing different expression patterns in vertebrates. Each of them is encoded in a separate gene and binds fatty acids and eicosanoids. PPARalpha plays a role in the clearance of circulating or cellular lipids via the regulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle. PPARbeta/delta is involved in lipid oxidation and cell proliferation. PPARgamma promotes adipocyte differentiation to enhance blood glucose uptake.    
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PPAR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human) cluster_node38 Liver Skeletal muscle cluster_Adipocyte Adipocyte cluster_Lipogenesis Lipogenesis cluster_node39 !dna cluster_node40 Skeletal muscle adipocyte cluster_node41 Lipid transport cluster_Ketogenesis Ketogenesis cluster_node42 Cholesterol metabolism cluster_node43 Fatty acid transport cluster_node44 Fatty acid oxidation cluster_node45 Adipocyte diff. FATCD36 FABP FATCD36->FABP FATP FATP->FABP node1 1 FABP->node1 FABP node7 2 FABP->node7 node14 3 FABP->node14 Unsaturated fatty acid 2 FABP->Unsaturated fatty acid 2 node3 9-cis -Retinoic acid node6 PPARA RXR node3->node6 node9 PPARD RXR node3->node9 node13 PPARG RXR node3->node13 node4 1 node4->node6 node5 5 node6->node5 PPARA~RXR Adipocytokine signaling pathway node6->Adipocytokine signaling pathway DNA 1 node6->DNA 1 Eicosanoid 1 node7->Eicosanoid 1 Fibrate drug node7->Fibrate drug NSAID node7->NSAID Saturated fat node7->Saturated fat Unsaturated fatty acid 1 node7->Unsaturated fatty acid 1 node8 1 node9->node8 PPARD~RXR DNA 2 node9->DNA 2 node12 11 node13->node12 PPARG~RXR DNA 3 node13->DNA 3 Eicosanoid 2 node14->Eicosanoid 2 NSAID 2 node14->NSAID 2 Thiazolidine derivative node14->Thiazolidine derivative Unsaturated fatty acid 3 node14->Unsaturated fatty acid 3 node15 4 node15->node13 Lipid metabolism node16 5 apolipoprotein A-I APOA1 node16->APOA1 apolipoprotein A-II APOA2 node16->APOA2 apolipoprotein A-V APOA5 node16->APOA5 apolipoprotein C-III APOC3 node16->APOC3 phospholipid transfer protein PLTP node16->PLTP node17 6 node17->Lipid metabolism node19 7 fatty acid desaturase 2 FADS2 node19->FADS2 malic enzyme 1,NADP(+)-dependent,cytosolic ME1 node19->ME1 node18 SCD-1 node19->node18 node20 8 node20->Lipid metabolism node21 9 CYP27 node21->CYP27 cytochrome P450,family 7,subfamily A,polypeptide 1 CYP7A1 node21->CYP7A1 cytochrome P450,family 8,subfamily B,polypeptide 1 CYP8B1 node21->CYP8B1 LXRalpha node21->LXRalpha node22 10 node22->Lipid metabolism node23 4 node25 11 ACBP node25->ACBP ACS node25->ACS CD36 molecule (thrombospondin receptor) CD36 node25->CD36 fatty acid binding protein 1,liver FABP1 node25->FABP1 fatty acid binding protein 3,muscle and heart (mammary-derived growth inhibitor) FABP3 node25->FABP3 node24 FATP1/4 node25->node24 lipoprotein lipase LPL node25->LPL oxidized low density lipoprotein (lectin-like) receptor 1 OLR1 node25->OLR1 node26 12 node26->Lipid metabolism node27 1 node29 13 ACO node29->ACO Bien node29->Bien CPT1 node29->CPT1 carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 CPT2 node29->CPT2 CYP4A1 node29->CYP4A1 LCAD node29->LCAD MCAD node29->MCAD node28 SCP-X node29->node28 Thiolase B node29->Thiolase B node30 14 node30->Lipid metabolism Cell Survival node31 Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis node32 6 node33 15 ADIPO node33->ADIPO CAP node33->CAP matrix metallopeptidase 1 (interstitial collagenase) MMP1 node33->MMP1 PGAR node33->PGAR Perilipin node33->Perilipin aP2 node33->aP2 Adipocyte differentiation uncoupling protein 1 (mitochondrial,proton carrier) UCP1 Adaptive thermogenesis UCP1->Adaptive thermogenesis node34 16 integrin-linked kinase ILK node34->ILK pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase,isozyme 1 PDK1 node34->PDK1 ILK->Cell Survival PDK1->Cell Survival node35 1 ubiquitin C UBC UBC->node35 UBC node36 Ubiquitination / Ubiquitylation UBC->node36 node37 17 PEPCK node37->PEPCK GyK node37->GyK aquaporin 7 AQP7 node37->AQP7 PEPCK->node31 GyK->node31 AQP7->node31 ACBP->node26 ACS->node26 CD36->node26 FABP1->node26 FABP3->node26 node24->node26 LPL->node23 LPL LPL->node26 OLR1->node26 ACO->node30 Bien->node30 CPT1->node30 CPT2->node30 CYP4A1->node27 CYP4A1 CYP4A1->node30 LCAD->node30 MCAD->node30 node28->node30 Thiolase B->node30 node11 13(S)-HODE node11->node15 ADIPO->node32 ADIPO ADIPO->Adipocyte differentiation CAP->Adipocyte differentiation MMP1->Adipocyte differentiation PGAR->Adipocyte differentiation Perilipin->Adipocyte differentiation aP2->Adipocyte differentiation node2 8(S)-HETE Eicosanoid 1->node2 Leukotriene B4 Eicosanoid 1->Leukotriene B4 Fibrate drug->node4 NSAID->node4 Saturated fat->node4 Unsaturated fatty acid 1->node4 Eicosanoid 2->node11 node10 9(S)-HODE Eicosanoid 2->node10 NSAID 2->node15 Thiazolidine derivative->node15 Unsaturated fatty acid 3->node15 APOA1->node17 APOA2->node17 APOA5->node17 APOC3->node17 PLTP->node17 FADS2->node20 ME1->node20 node18->node20 node2->node4 CYP27->node22 CYP7A1->node22 CYP8B1->node22 LXRalpha->node22 node10->node15 DNA 1->node16 DNA 1->node19 DNA 1->node21 DNA 1->node25 DNA 1->node29 DNA 1->node33 DNA 1->UCP1 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (mitochondrial) HMGCS2 DNA 1->HMGCS2 HMGCS2->Lipid metabolism DNA 2->node25 DNA 2->node29 DNA 2->node33 DNA 2->UCP1 DNA 2->node34 DNA 2->UBC DNA 3->node19 DNA 3->node21 DNA 3->node25 DNA 3->node29 DNA 3->node33 DNA 3->UCP1 DNA 3->node37 Leukotriene B4->node4 Unsaturated fatty acid 2->node9 print "