Autophagy - Homo sapiens (human)

Curator(s): Peter D'Adamo

Autophagy is a process of self-digestion that occurs in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy involves the formation of a membrane around a region of the cytoplasm, sequestering macromolecules like proteins and organelles, and the fusion of the resultant vesicle with a lysosome in which the contents are degraded. Through autophagy starving cells degrade materials within their own cells to provide necessary nutrients for more essential processes. Another essential function of autophagy in higher eukaryotes is to remove potentially harmful proteins to protect the cells against diseases and infection by pathogens. Furthermore, autophagy has been suggested to play a role in developmental and anti-aging functions in animal cells. Elucidation of autophagy is thus not only of academic, but also medical interest.    
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Autophagy - Homo sapiens (human) cluster_node14 AUTOPHAGY INDUCTION cluster_node15 VESICLE NUCLEATION insulin INS Insulin signaling pathways INS->Insulin signaling pathways node1 16 AMPK AMPK->node1 AMPK mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase) MTOR AMPK->MTOR ER Stress ER Stress->AMPK Hypoxia Hypoxia->AMPK Amino acid starvation Amino acid starvation->AMPK Rapamycin Rapamycin->AMPK node2 Autophagosome-Lysosyme Fusion node3 20 MTOR->node3 MTOR ATG1 MTOR->ATG1 MTOR signaling pathway MTOR signaling pathway->MTOR node4 1 node5 1 node6 1-phosphatidyl -D-myo -inositol node7 1-phosphatidyl -D-myo -inositol 3-phosphate node6->node7 ATG10 autophagy related 10 homolog (S. cerevisiae) ATG10 node6->ATG10 ATG5 autophagy related 5 homolog (S. cerevisiae) ATG5 ATG10->ATG5 node8 1 ATG5->node8 ATG5 ATG16 ATG5->ATG16 ATG3 autophagy related 3 homolog (S. cerevisiae) ATG3 ATG16->ATG3 node12 ATG12 -ATG5 -ATG16 Multimeric Complex ATG16->node12 ATG7 autophagy related 7 homolog (S. cerevisiae) ATG7 ATG7->node2 ATG7->ATG10 ATG7->ATG3 ATG12 autophagy related 12 homolog (S. cerevisiae) ATG12 ATG12->ATG7 node9 21 B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 BCL2 BCL2->node9 BCL2 node10 1 BCL2-like 2 BCL2L2 BCL2L2->node10 BCL2L2 golgi-associated PDZ and coiled-coil motif containing GOPC Insulin signaling pathways->MTOR signaling pathway MAPK signaling pathway Insulin signaling pathways->MAPK signaling pathway MAPK signaling pathway->MTOR signaling pathway Apoptosis Antigen presentation Antigen presentation->Apoptosis SNARE complex SNARE complex->Antigen presentation ATG8 ATG4 ATG8->ATG4 ATG4->ATG7 ATG3->SNARE complex node11 Phospatidylethanolamine (PE) ATG3->node11 node13 1 Spermidine Spermidine->MTOR Spermidine->node13 Spermidine Resveratrol Resveratrol ->MTOR ATG11 ATG1->ATG11 ATG13 autophagy related 13 homolog (S. cerevisiae) ATG13 ATG1->ATG13 ATG17 ATG1->ATG17 ATG6 ATG1->ATG6 VAC8 ATG13->VAC8 ATG6->BCL2 ATG6->BCL2L2 ATG6->GOPC ATG14 autophagy related 14 homolog (S. cerevisiae) ATG14 ATG6->ATG14 VPS34 ATG14->VPS34 VPS34->node5 VPS34 VPS34->node6 VPS15 VPS15->node4 VPS15 VPS15->VPS34 print "